Million Dollar Homepage
By B 2001 some more names for top-level domains were injected:.name — for natural persons,.museum — for the museums and another “treasuries of world culture”,.aero — for the organizations and firms, the bound to air transportation,.biz — for the commercial organizations. And in 2002 the list was replenished by the name. pro. It is supposed that in the appropriate domain the organizations and organizations which are engaged in professional activity in the different fields of science and technology will register. Until any of the listed domains became as popular as their predecessors.
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B the principle, the owner of the domain of the second level has below the right to select for it any name. However it threatens with danger of origin of several identical domain names: having addressed one resource, the visitor can appear absolutely in other corner of “web”. That it did not occur, there is an express organization controlling uniqueness of domain names. Till 1998 IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) working under the contract with the U. S. Government (as is well-known, the USA — the Internet homeland) was such organization. Now these functions are laid to the independent international organization of ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers). The official site of this organization (fig. 1.7) is located at the address www. icann. org.
Fig. 1.7. Website of the lCANN organization
ICANN registers and assigns names for top-level domains. The regional registrars subordinated to it perform the same functions at the level. If the user or the organization want to register new domain name, then they shall address the logger of higher level. For example, to register domain name of the 3rd level, it is necessary to get permission at the logger of the 2nd level.
The maximum length of domain name is restricted to technical standards and is 63 characters.
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B of Russia _sammyavlyatsya by the representative the RIPN organization (The the US scientific research institute of development of public networks).
In coordination with the Ministry of Communications of the the US Federation the administrator of the national domain.ca since January 4, 2006 is the Coordination center of the national domain of the Internet (www. cctld.ca/ru). His founders — RIPN and three the US public organizations: Regional Public Centre of Internet Technologies (RPCIT), Union of Operators of the Internet (UOI), Association of Documentary Electric Communication (ADEC). Powers on compilation of rules of filing of domain names, accreditation of loggers and advance planning of development of the the US national domain are laid to Coordination center.
RIPN provides functioning of the technical center working directly with operating loggers and maintains the database (register) of the domain.ca and also provides technical support and filing of domains of the third level in a number of domains (GEOGRAPHICAL, GENERIC) public.
The detailed information about a registration procedure can be obtained on the website of this organization posted to the address www. ripn. net (fig. 1.8).
Fig. 1.8. Face of the master of the the US Internet
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The permission entered since March, 2003 on use of the US-speaking names of domains (президент. нет type) is of special interest for the US-speaking visitors of the Internet. In spite of the fact that the appropriate standard was received in November, 2003, technical issues, the bound to non Latin names of domains are not solved yet (detailed, but very intelligible description of these problems is available on the web site of the Coordination center mentioned above to the address www. cctld.ca/ru/about/structure/wgroup/domaincyr/report/).
Nevertheless already now persons interested can register the US-speaking domain name. However, the browser of the user wishing to visit the website with such name shall be added by the special module (plug-in). One of such modules (it is called i-Nav) is free of charge provided by the VeriSign company (www. idnnow. com). This module executes conversion of the non Latin domain name set by the user to a Latin (English-speaking) analog by particular rules, according to the agreement on multilingual domain names of IDN (Internationalized Domain Names).
And in conclusion — a small, but cautionary story “from life of domain names” as an example of creative approach to business on the Internet.
Alex Tyyu, the 21-year-old inhabitant Krikleyda, that in the English county of Wiltshire, was opened by the website under the name Million Dollar Homepage (milliondollarhomepage. com) before went to the University of Nottingham to study bases of business steering.
The homepage of the website represents a goal net from 10 thousand squares of 100 pixels (10 on 10) each (fig. 1.9).
Fig. 1.9. Homepage of the website Million Dollar Homepage
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It was offered to visitors to place on the purchased space the advertizing with reference to own website.
On development of a kontseptsiiualeks 20 minutes, and on selling all free advertizing space — left 5 months. “I had literally month prior to study at the university, and I very much did not want to be the poor student sitting in bar and worrying about how to purchase to all friends on a glass of beer” — he tells.
Possibly, first advertisers just became interested in non-standard of the idea. But after publications in media the website became very man-tended and consequently, really attractive from the advertizing point of view.
Since Alex invented the website, he earned 4 thousand dollars a day. The penultimate piece of advertizing space of 1000 pixels was sold at an Internet auction of eBay for 38,100 dollars.
Alex does not know yet, the leah he will develop this idea further, but it already registered the address billiondollarhomepage. com.
URL: the multiple-purpose address
Now, when we learned that such domain name, it is worth returning to structure of the hypertext document. As it was told above, such document can be considered as a set of pages (HTML-files) connected among themselves by hyperlinks. If there is a lot of such pages, they are arranged and the same issued, then usually call them the website (from English site), or a node. However, the second option is more often used for designation of the computer connected to the Network having own domain name.
If in addition to providing information the website provides access to several services of the Internet (an electronic mail, newsletters, electronic shop), then it is usually called the portal.
As a rule, physically the website is placed in one folder on a hard drive of the computer connected to the Network. This folder may contain other nested folders for more convenient operation with files of the website. For example, the separate folder for the figures included in HTML pages, one more — for sound files or for a flash movies etc can be framed (fig. 1.10). B to the separate folder are also stored files with the programs scenarios providing interactivity of the website.
If visitors of the Internet have access to the single website placed on this computer, then it is possible to read (with some clauses) that the address of the website matches domain name of the computer. For example, if on the computer having the name bank and entering the domain. spb which, in turn, is a part of the domain.ca, time –
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meshchen the single website, the address of the website it is possible to read domain name of bank. spb.ca. Usually the computer on which the website is placed call a Web server, poskolkuon “services” the requests entering from clients — visitors of the Internet (more precisely, from browsers of visitors).
Imya_sayta (root folder)
Folders of HTML-files according to sections of the publication
□ Glavn (index
Homepage (index. html)
Fig. 1.10. Standard structure of the small website
It is necessary to mark that on such computer the additional software intended for processing of the entering requests (sending the requested pages) shall be established. Besides, the server software executes a row of riders. For example, it can check, the leah is resolved this user access to the specific page of the website.
B a most cases the welcome (main) page of the website is placed directly in a root folder of the website, and the Web server in case of arrival of the address of the website from the client sends the browser as inquiry answer this page. Usually such file is called Index. html, Default. html or Home. html (see the fig. i. io).
To address a concrete resource (file) which is a part of the website, insufficiently domain name of the computer. It is necessary to specify the special address which is called Uniform Resource Locator (the multiple-purpose address of a resource), in abbreviated form URL.
As the physical medium (more precisely, a saver) a resource is the computer, the basis of URL is made by domain name of this computer. However for the addressing the specific file resource it is required
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to specify additional data — a route of access to the necessary file. The route of access separates from domain name oblique line (slash). For example, the addressing the Cat. gif file which is in the Images folder can look so: bank. spb.ca/Images/Cat. gif.
Along with the URL resource address usually contains also the name of the protocol which shall be used by operation with a required resource.